Auto Catalog


Every vehicle has two A-pillars, on both side of the windshield at the front. This A-pillar helps in supporting roof of vehicles. it provides protection, and is among the strongest body parts.

ABC – Active Body Control:

The  Active Body Control (ABC) was developed by Mercedes-Benz to give safety, handling  and comfort ride experience. Using high-pressure hydraulic servos, a multitude of sensor and high-performance microprocessors, ABC adapts the suspension and damping settings to different driving situations.

ABD – Automatic Braking Differential:

The Automatic Braking Differential (ABD) system was co-developed by Bosch and Porsche which provides super traction on wheels while driving. ABD is an electronic locking system that uses the brakes and inputs from the Anti-lock Braking System sensors to simulate “the lock” of one of the wheels in case of hard acceleration or during a high-speed maneuver.

ABS – Antilock Braking System:

The Antilock Braking System (ABS) is used to improve stability during braking and in some cases it can even shorten braking distances. It also prevents wheel lock-up during braking by using sensors which determine if any wheel is slowing down more than the others and computer-controlled valves which can limit the pressure delivered to each brake cylinder on demand. The whole system is controlled via a master ECU (Electronic Control Unit).

ACC – Adaptive Cruise Control:

With the help of sensors, the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system recognizes preceding vehicles, calculates  speed and keeps the distance by scanning the area in front of the vehicle then automatically acts on the brakes and/or engine power. Some ACC systems can actually get the vehicle to a complete halt without any driver intervention.

ACC – Automatic Climate Control:

The Automatic Climate Control is an air-conditioning unit which automatically sets the temperature without being influenced by the outside temperature or other factors. nowadays The most advanced climate control systems use different sensors and can take into account outside temperature, the intensity and angle of sun rays on the car to automatically regulate the temperature.

ACE – Active Cornering Enhancement:

This feature was first found in Land Rover vehicles, the Active Cornering Enhancement (ACE) is a system that reduces body roll during cornering. A pair of accelerometers are used to detect the angle of body lean and to instruct the ACE computer to counteract these movements by applying pressure to the vehicle’s torsion bars via actuators which are hydraulically controlled thus, helping the vehicle become more stable and responsive during hard cornering.

ACE – Advanced Compatibility Engineering:

The Advanced Compatibility Engineering (ACE) body structure is a safety technology available in modern Honda vehicles. It is essentially a structure designed to disperse collision forces away from the passenger space inside the cabin in case of a crash. This is done while the damage to other vehicles involved is also minimized.

ACS – Attention Control System:

The Attention Control System (ACS) consists of a camera installed to monitor the drivers blinking movements. If the computer connected to the camera perceives the driver to be at risk of sleepiness at the wheel, the system can warn him ahead of time. Similar technologies are currently being developed by Lexus, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo.

ACT – Active Suspension Technology:

The Active Suspension Technology can modify its settings in real time to control body motion in response to any road abnormality or during cornering, braking or acceleration using different sensors.

ADC – Automatic Distance Control:

The Automatic Distance control (ADC)  when activated, the speed control system can make the car keep a constant distance to another vehicle in front independent of driver input.

Adjustable height shoulder belt:

Allows the car occupants to individually adjust the safety belt to fit their size and/or height.

ADS – Adaptive Damping System:

Adaptive Damping System (ADS), which can individually adjust the shock absorbers forces to match the vehicle’s payload, the state of road surface and  driving style.


Aerodynamics are a very important part of automotive design, since it can influence by factors like fuel consumption, noise levels, top speed and undesired lift forces experienced by any vehicle at high speed.

AFS – Active Front-lighting System:

The Active Front-lighting system (AFS) can redirect the headlamp units individually on a horizontal direction during vehicle cornering with steering angle and vehicle speed, and is assisted by a computer which determines the angle it needs to rotate the headlamps.


The airbag is also called a “Supplementary Restraint System”, and in short it consists of an inflatable bag or envelope which keeps the occupants from hitting any hard parts of the vehicle’s interior during a crash.

Airbag ECU – Airbag Electronic Control Unit:

The Airbag ECU uses information gathered from deceleration sensors usually located in the crumple zones of a vehicle. Within just 15 milliseconds of any impact, the information is already processed by the ECU, therefore it can determine if there is really a need for airbag deployment, whether they should be triggered in stages (in the case of modern multistage airbags) or whether only the seat belt limiters should come into force or not.


Instead of a conventional suspension and damping system with coil springs and gas-pressure shock absorbers, some Mercedes-Benz models are equipped with AIRMATIC, a system which combines a pneumatic suspension with the Adaptive Damping System (ADS).

ALD – Automatic Locking Differential:

The Automatic Locking Differential improves handling during acceleration in curves or when one of the driving wheels is on a surface with a different grip coefficient than the others. In short, it ensures the best rotational speed for each of the driving wheels.

ALR – Automatic Locking Retractors:

Automatic Locking Retractors allow the safety belt to be pulled in one motion until fastened. The Automatic Locking Retractors on belts help to keep the occupants in place in the event of a frontal collision or during hard braking.

AMG – Aufrecht Melcher Grossaspach:

The company was founded in 1967 by former Mercedes engineer Hans-Werner Aufrecht and his business partner Erhard Melcher in a small German town named Grossaspach. The name originated from each of the two partner’s family names and the town in which they started the business.

AMG started off by designing and testing Mercedes-Benz racing engines and after a few years expanded their business into building bespoke road cars, also based upon the tri-star vehicles.

ANC – Active Noise Cancellation:

The Active Noise Cancellation system is designed to implement an adaptive algorithm that cancels the unwanted sound by generating an anti-sound of equal amplitude and opposite phase. The original sound and the anti-sound acoustically combine, resulting in the cancellation of both sounds, thus improving the acoustical comfort in the vehicle.

Angle of Approach:

When viewing the side of a vehicle, the angle of approach is the angle between the ground and a line running from the front tire to the lowest-hanging component directly ahead (which is usually the front bumper). This angle gives an indication of how steep a ramp can the vehicle negotiate without suffering damage to its undercarriage.

Angle of Departure:

When viewing a vehicle from its side, the angle of departure is the angle between the ground and a line running from the rear tires to the lowest-hanging component directly behind them (which is usually the rear bumper).

APS – Acoustic Parking System:

The Acoustic Parking System (APS) uses ultrasonic sensors installed at the rear as well as at the front of a vehicle to make parking easier.. A warning tone or lights on a display are usually used to give the driver warning of an impending impact with any object caught by the ultrasonic sensors’ sight.

ARM – Active Roll Mitigation:

The ARM system only uses the braking system to stabilize the vehicle, by providing very short brake bursts on individual wheels, following information gathered from rollover and ABS wheel sensors.

ARS – Advanced Restraint Systems:

Advanced Restraint Systems are a safety technology designed to improve the efficiency of safety items during a crash. A data combination of sensors from the occupant’s height, the seating position, safety belt usage and the vehicle’s deceleration to control the airbag deployment and the belt forces during a crash is  gathered and provided to a computer which uses this information to decide which safety restraints.

ASC – Anti Skid Control:

The Anti Skid Control (ASC) keeps the driving wheel spin within the optimum range during hard acceleration or on slippery surfaces. Regardless of how hard the driver presses the gas pedal, the ASC system intervening on the engine power and on the brakes controls the car’s acceleration with maximum possible efficiency, ensuring that none of the driving wheels will spin excessively.

ASF – Audi Space Frame:

The first generation of the Audi A8 is the first car with an aluminium body built according to the Audi Space Frame principle, advantage of this solution, especially on a heavier car is the low weight combined with better stiffness.

ASR – Acceleration Slip Regulation:

ASR prevents the driving wheels from spinning unnecessary while on slippery surfaces, or when the power coming from the engine is too much for ensuring good traction.

ASSYST – Active Service System:

Active Service System ASSYST, which registers the varying operating loads individually and takes these into account for scheduling engine maintenance. On the basis of sensor-derived data such as oil level, oil temperature, coolant temperature, engine speed, road speed and engine load, a microcomputer calculates the actual load on the engine oil and works out a servicing schedule for the engine which reflects this and announces the driver.

ATC – Active Tilt Control:

The Active Tilt Control is a technology used by some SUVs belonging to brands from the Ford Motor Company. ATC is used primarily for controlling body lean while the vehicle is cornering.

ATC – Adaptive Transmission Control:

The Adaptive Transmission Control system is found only on automatic and sequential transmissions and is based on a fuzzy-logic processor which can recognize individual styles of driving and adapts transmission shift parameters accordingly. It usually uses a microprocessor to read data from various sensors, and with the help of a complex algorithm it decides when to upshift or downshift.

ATTS – Active Transfer Torque System:

The Active Torque Transfer System (ATTS) uses information gathered from multiple sensors, including steering angle and lateral acceleration, ATTS can transfer torque to the wheel with the greatest traction.

ATV – All-terrain vehicle:

The term All Terrain Vehicle is usually used to describe small open motorized vehicles with three or four wheels that are designed for off-road use.

Assisted or automatic parking:

A number of car companies have started to offer automatic parking features on their models nowadays. This is done by using parking sensors on every side of the car and a microprocessor which in some cases can also control steering, braking and acceleration during the parking.


An automobile is a self-propelled wheeled vehicle that carries its own means of propulsion and is used for transport on land.

AVCS – Active Valve Control System:

The Active Valve Control System (AVCS) is a variable valve timing engine technology used by Subaru.This increases the power output especially on higher rpms without sacrificing fuel consumption.

AWD – All Wheel Drive:

Sending power to every one of the vehicle’s wheels through active or inactive differentials or a transfer case.

AWS – All Wheel Steering

All Wheel Steering is a system that turns the rear wheels in the same direction as the front wheels to aid in high-speed cornering.

Axle Articulation:

Axle articulation is the ability of a vehicle’s axle to move in a different direction vertically relative to the chassis or the other axle/s.

Axle Ratio:

The axle ratio is the proportion between a vehicle’s driveshaft rotation and its driving wheel axle. By changing a vehicle’s axle ratio, you may change its towing capacity, but this also depends on the engine’s power, naturally.

AYC – Active Yaw Control:

The Active Yaw Control is a Mitsubishi developed system that stabilizes the yaw moment during hard cornering.

4ETS – 4 wheel Electronic Traction System:

4-ETS uses individual wheel-speed sensors to detect the onset of wheel slip. Then it individually brakes the slipping wheels as needed, providing the effect of locking the front, center and/or rear differentials

4MATIC – 4 Wheel Drive and Automatic:

4MATIC is the name of a complex electronically controlled all wheel drive system developed and used by Mercedes-Benz on some of its models. The system employs locking central and rear differentials to provide additional traction in slippery conditions or during off-roading. 45.4WD – Four Wheel Drive

Four Wheel Drive is a system which transfers engine power to four wheels independently and is mostly found on SUVs and all-terrain vehicles.

4X2 – Two Wheel Drive:

This expression is used to describe a vehicle with only two wheel drive. The first figure is the total number of wheels, and the second is the number of driving wheels.

6×4 – 6×4:

An expression used to describe a six-wheeled vehicle – two wheels in the front and four in the rear – that is driven by the rear four wheels.

6×6 – 6×6:

An expression used to describe a vehicle equipped with six wheels that is driven by all of them.

BAS – Brake Assist System:

This Brake Assist System (BAS), developed by Mercedes-Benz to shorten emergency stopping distances, takes over if a driver doesn’t apply enough braking power in a critical situation.46.BFL- Belt force limiters

When a force exceeding a certain level acts on the belt strap, the torsion bar produces a controlled reduction in the locking effect of the inertia reel. In other words, it automatically limits the stress on the occupants chest in the case of sudden braking or a frontal collision.

BFD – Brake Force Display:

Brake Force Display is a system developed by BMW for alerting tailgating drivers of a potential hazard in front of their vehicle. It works by increasing the intensity of the brake lights under heavy braking.

BHP – Brake Horsepower:

Brake Horsepower is the imperial (or British) measure of an engine’s horsepower, and it is about 0.98 out of a metric horsepower.

Bi-xenon headlamps:

Bi-Xenon headlamps are actually normal xenon headlamps which use a single lamp to produce both the high beam and the low beam.

Body roll:

The leaning motion of a vehicle’s body while turning into a corner. Also known as yaw angle.

Body-side steps:

The bars you can step up onto on the side of an SUV or an off-roader, making entry and exit a little easier. They are mostly found on American cars.

Bottom-end power:

The power that an engine produces at low revs (at the “bottom end” of the rev range).

Brake caliper:

The brake caliper looks almost like a normal measuring caliper and is part of the disc brake. When brakes are applied, hydraulic fluid forces the brake pads using one or several pistons in the calipers towards the discs, causing the discs to squeezed.

Brake Fade:

Any type of brake gets heated up after repeated or hard use. This is called brake fade.

Brake Lockup:

In braking, lockup describes the point at which a wheel stops rotating while the vehicle is still in motion. This mostly happens in emergency stopping situations on vehicles which do not have ABS (Anti-lock Braking System).

Brake pedal travel:

The distance that the driver’s foot has to push the brake pedal before achieving optimum braking.


The pillar situated between the rear side windows and the rear window, that supports the roof. It’s the last roof supportive pillar on normal four door sedans.

Cab forward:

A vehicle design that moves the front wheels out farther on a front-wheel drive vehicle, which in turn results in a longer distance between the front and rear wheels.


A Jaguar developed system, the Computer Active Technology System (CATS) uses a network of sensors to monitor the driver’s driving style and road conditions.

CBC – Cornering Brake Control:

CBC regulates the pressure individually in each wheel brake cylinder so that the car can brake optimally during a turn.

Cd – Coefficient of drag:

The drag coefficient is measuring how much aerodynamic drag a vehicle has.

CDI – Common rail Diesel Injection:

CDI is the marketing name given by Mercedes to their modern diesel engines, which are using common rail injection technology.

Center Differential:

A normal differential is used in cars to help power the drive wheels while allowing them to spin independently of each other during cornering while a center differential is required because during a tight turn all four wheels are rotating with different speeds.


The term “chassis” usually describes a vehicle’s  outline or structural framework of the vehicle.

Child-security locks:

Rear door locks that are controlled by the passengers in front and are designed to keep children from exiting the vehicle prematurely.

CHMSL – Center high-mounted stop lamp:

An extra rear brake lamp that’s placed high inside or outside the vehicle, designed to give tailgating drivers an additional reaction time for avoiding a rear collision. The “third brake light” – the way it’s sometimes called – is using LED technology on most vehicles.

Coil Spring:

Used in a vehicle’s suspension system, a coil spring consists of a spiral shaped bar of resilient metal.

Composite cross car beam:

A member made of composite material that acts as an energy-absorbing device in the event of a collision, improving the vehicle body’s stabilization during the crash.

Connecting rod:

A steel, aluminium or other similar material which connects the piston to the crankshaft in a combustion engine.

Control Trac:

Control Trac is a system developed by the Ford Motor Company. In essence it is a computerized non-permanent 4WD system that evaluates the road conditions with the help of various sensors, and it can automatically switch the vehicle from two to four-wheel drive whenever wheel-slip occurs.


A coupe is a two or four-seater vehicle with a fixed roof and only two doors.


The crankcase is the housing which contains the crankshaft, primary drive shaft and gearbox.


The crankshaft usually called as the rank converts the linear motion of pistons into rotational motion.

CRDi – Common Rail Diesel direct Injection:

CRDi is the marketing name given by Hyundai-Kia to all of the common rail diesel engines powering their vehicles.


The crossmember is a metallic section bolted or sometimes welded across the frame of a vehicle, usually to “cover” the underside of the engine bay, in order to support the engine and/or the transmission in their place.


A crossover is a type of automobile which blends the main characteristics of at least two car segments. (like SUV and Family car)

Curb Weight:

Curb weight is the weight of an empty vehicle, without cargo and driver and passengers, but including maximum amounts of fuel, oil, coolant and standard equipment, including the spare tire and tools.Basically means the weight the vehicle with luggage and the standard equipments for the vehicle.

CV joint – Constant Velocity Joint:

CV is designed to transmit power from a rotating shaft to a wheel through a variable angle but with a constant rotational speed.

CVT – Continuously Variable Transmission:

CVT is a automatic gearbox with an infinite number of gears situated between two valves. The main advantage of CVTs over conventional transmissions resides in their smoothness, since basically there is no interruption of power during the “shifting” maneuver. The main shortcoming is the amount of torque they can handle, which depends strictly to the material of which the belt is being made of.


Damping is the motion of cushioning the vehicle’s body movements in order to smooth the ride over bumpy roads and eliminate uncomfortable vibrations coming from the surface of the road.

DBC – Dynamic Brake Control:

Dynamic Brake Control (DBC) is a BMW developed active safety system which improves brake effectiveness during emergency braking.


A differential is a device that can be used to do two mainly different things: either it can be used to transfer power from the transmission or it can allow two wheels on the same axle to turn at different speeds, but using the same power.

Differential Lock:

Transforming two axles to work as one or two wheels to rotate as if on a single axle can help increase traction in off-road terrain or in a straight line while accelerating hard.

Disc Brakes:

Disc brakes are the most common and also most effective means of stopping a vehicle.Compared to the drum version, disc brakes operate much more efficiently at high temperatures and wet conditions.


It is the total volume of all the cylinders in the engine measured in CC.In some countries the tax can be based on the  units of displacement


The main difference between a conventional cruise control system and Distronic is that – apart from keeping the vehicle on a steady speed – the technology is also using radar sensors to automatically detect and adapt to the speed of the car traveling in front.

DOHC – Double Overhead Camshaft:

DOHC means the vehicle have two different valves one for intake and other is exhaust valves, unlike SOHC (Single Overhead Camshaft) layouts where a single camshaft operates both inlet and exhaust valves.

Double-pod cockpit:

An interior design that has separate and symmetrical areas carved out of the dash for the driver and front passenger.


Downforce is the phenomenon when air pressure is pushing down on a vehicle at high speeds, thus enabling more stability and better traction.


The driveshaft transmits power from the engine through the transmission to the differential.


Also known as the powertrain, the drivetrain describes all of the vehicle’s components which are used to produce and transmit power to the drive wheels. In short, the engine, transmission, drive shafts, differentials and axle shafts are all part of the drivetrain.

DRL – Daytime Running Lights:

Daytime Running Lights (DRL)  helps with better visibility for other drivers, which in turn would help prevent more crashes.

Drum Brakes:

A drum brake provides breaking to the wheels. Drum brakes are very simple and generally very effective, except under heavy or hard use and under wet conditions, which is why they are less and less common on modern cars.

DSC – Dynamic Stability Control:

Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) is BMW’s marketing name for the Electronic Stability Control, which uses the anti-lock braking and traction control systems to improve directional stability when cornering and intervening to help prevent or correct oversteer and understeer.

DSTC – Dynamic Stability and Traction Control:

Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC) is a stabilization system from BMW which combines the DSC (Dynamic Stability Control) with the Traction Control system, thus essentially offering skid-free driving.

EAS – Electronic Air Suspension:

The Electronic Air Suspension System (EAS) automatically adapts damping and spring characteristics, along with the vehicle’s body level to driving conditions and load changes.

EBA – Emergency Brake Assistance:

The EBA system from Mercedes-Benz is designed to make use of the best capabilities the ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) has to offer in the event of an emergency braking. Electronic Brake Assistance achieves this by detecting if a faster or harder than usual application of the brake pedal – such as under a panic situation – has happened and acts accordingly.

EBD – Electronic brake force distribution:

EBD  senses the weight in the rear of the car and sends more force to the rear brakes accordingly. So you experience more effective, better-balanced braking.

ECA – Electronically Controlled Automatic:

ECA  is an automatic transmission controlled by an Electronic Control Unit that has its shift timing, which takes into account various factors such as road conditions.

ECM – Electronic Control Module:

Electronic Control Modules are subsystems consisting of microprocessors and assorted signal inputs and outputs which can control different components within a vehicle like ABS, airbags etc.

ECU – Electronic Control Unit:

The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) controls the fuel injection system and the ignition timing of almost any modern engine.

EDL – Electronic Differential Lock:

The Electronic Differential Lock (EDS) is a Volkswagen technology, due to the stress it can create on the brakes by hard use, the system only works up to speeds of approximately 25 mph.

EFI – Electronic Fuel Injection:

This EFI makes for a much more efficient combustion process, leading to a better fuel economy and more power.

EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation:

EGR is essentially a method of reducing emissions coming out of the exhaust, thus reducing the temperature reached in the cylinders.

Engine Braking:

Engine braking is a technique of slowing down a vehicle without the help of brakes but by using the engine’s own power. It is best done with a manual transmission, although automatics can also be up to the task, especially modern ones.

ESP – Electronic Stability Program:

The Electronic Stability Program (ESP) was co-developed by Bosch and Mercedes-Benz and is now one of the most well spread active safety systems in the world.

Four valves per cylinder:

Four valves per cylinder are mostly used on DOHC (Double Overhead Camshaft) engines. Two of the valves are for the air-fuel mixture intake while the other two open to allow the exhaust gases out of each cylinder.

FPS – Fire Prevention System:

The Fire Prevention System (FPS) is designed to interrupt fuel delivery in the event of a collision, thus minimizing the risk of fire.

Fuel cutoff:

A computer-controlled shut off to the fuel system designed to prevent drivers from over-revving the engine, causing engine failure.

Fuel Injection:

Fuel injection is a mechanical or electronic system designed to inject atomized fuel directly into the cylinders or the of an internal-combustion engine.

FWD – Front-wheel Drive:

Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a term used to describe a vehicle layout in which only the front wheels are powered.

GCWR – Gross Combined Weight Rating:

Gross Combined Weight Rating (GCWR) is the maximum weight of a completely loaded vehicle and its trailer, as designated by the manufacturer.

GAWR – Gross Axle Weight Rating:

The Gross Axle Weight Rating is the maximum amount of weight that can be supported by each axle, as prescribed by the manufacturer.

Gear Ratio:

This is a numerical ratio of a series of gears in relation to each other, based on the number of turns of the input shaft, compared to turns of the output shaft. Gear ratios are determined by the number of teeth on each gear (and therefore the size of each year).

Ground Clearance:

Ground clearance is the measurement from the lowest-hanging point under a vehicle. A high ground clearance allows a vehicle to drive more easily off-road or through heavy snow without damaging the underbody.

GVW – Gross Vehicle Weight:

Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) is the total weight of a vehicle (with passengers, luggage, fuel, coolants and any options or accessories).

GVWR – Gross Vehicle Weight Rating:

The maximum allowable total weight of the vehicle that may not be exceeded, as designated by the manufacturer. GVWR is identified on the manufacturer’s certification label, which is usually located on the driver’s door or door jam.


A half-shaft is an articulated, rotating shaft used in independent suspension systems to transmit power from a differential to a drive wheel.


The hardtop is an automotive term which usually describes a rigid (sometimes detachable or even retractable) vehicle roof.


A hatchback is a type of automobile layout, consisting of a passenger cabin which includes an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind by a hatch or a flip-up window.

Hauling Capacity:

The hauling capacity is the maximum amount of weight – including the driver, passengers, options, accessories, and luggage – that can be carried by a vehicle, according to the manufacturer.

HDi – High-Pressure Diesel direct Injection:

HDi is PSA Group’s marketing name for their range of common rail diesel engines.

HID – Xenon High-Intensity Discharge:

High-Intensity Discharge (HID) headlamps use the light of a plasma discharge arc to generate light.

High center of gravity:

A vehicle with a high center of gravity will exhibit more body lean in turns and will be less stable, therefore making it more likely to roll over than a vehicle with a lower center of gravity.

Hill Holder:

Operating via the ESP (Electronic Stability Programme) longitudinal acceleration sensor when first gear is engaged and both clutch and brake pedals are pressed, the ECU maintains front brake calipers pressure for a few seconds after the brake pedal is released to eliminate the risk of rolling backward and ensures a smooth getaway uphill.

HP – Horsepower:

Horsepower is a measure of the rate at which work can be done.

Hydraulic valve adjusters:

The hydraulic pressure used to maintain valve clearance that eliminates the need for the valve adjustment and minimizes maintenance

ICCS – Integrated Chassis Control System:

The Integrated Chassis System (ICCS) is a General Motors technology that integrates brakes, steering, suspension and traction control, using electronic sensors for more precise handling.

Independent Suspension:

The independent suspension is a system where each wheel can be moved on a vertical axis without influencing the other and can react independently to bumps on the road.


An inline-six (or straight six) is an engine configuration where all cylinders sit in a straight line across the crankcase, while all the pistons are driving the same crankshaft.

INSTA TRAC – Instant Traction:

Insta Trac is a GM marketing name for a 4WD system that gives a vehicle the ability to shift from four to two-wheel drive and vice-versa without stopping.

Integrated child seats:

Some manufacturers offer integrated folding child seats into the normal seats of their vehicles. When not in use, the child seats can be retracted into the normal seats, which are usually in the rear part of the vehicle cabin.


The intercooler is a device used to cool the air coming into the combustion chamber on turbocharged and/or supercharged engines. This is done because cooler air produces more power, and charged engines tend to heat the intake air while it’s being compressed, thus decreasing its burn and combustion chamber fill-up efficiency.

Internal balancer:

The internal balancer is a gear-driven balancer that absorbs engine vibration for a smoother operation and enhanced reliability.


ISOFIX is the name of standardized child seat anchorages used by most car manufacturers.


Jounce is essentially the opposite of rebound, and it refers to the motion of a wheel that compresses or pushes against its suspension.


Kompressor is the marketing name given by Mercedes-Benz to its supercharged engines and is also the German word for the supercharger (or compressor).

Ladder Frame:

Ladder frames are used in vehicles with body-on-frame layouts and is usually shaped like a large metallic ladder.

LATCH-Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children:

LATCH refer to a standardized system for child seat attachment, as required by US and Canada legislation to be used in new vehicles in other parts of the world it is known as ISOFIX.

LDW – Lane Departure Warning system:

The lane departure warning system is a newly introduced safety technology in use by various manufacturers. If the vehicle should deviate from between the lane on which is traveling the system sends out a warning to the driver before he would potentially go off the road.

Leaf Spring:

Mostly used on pickup trucks and commercial vehicles suspension, being gradually replaced by coil springs over time because of their better comfort potential.

LEV – Low Emissions Vehicle:

LEV is a US federal classification of vehicles which emit a low level of emissions.


LINGUATRONIC is Mercedes-Benz’s voice recognition system. Therefore, LINGUATRONIC can adjust to many different styles of speaking and can also understand certain dialects.

Liquid-cooled engine:

Transfers engine heat into coolant solution. Liquid-cooled systems maintain more constant operating temperature than an air-cooled system.

Live Axle:

A live axle is a solid axle that transmits power to a pair of wheels. A solid axle that does not transmit power is called a beam axle.

LSD – Limited-Slip Differential:

LSD involves a mechanism which limits the rotation speeds between the two axle shafts it spins and ensures that power is always distributed to both drive wheels even if one has little or no traction. It is generally used on high-performance cars to ensure greater stability during turns and some sport utility vehicles.


Lugging happens when an engine’s rpm is below its power curve and is struggling to give motion to the vehicle. This usually happens when the car is going uphill in a higher gear

LUV – Luxury Utility Vehicle:

While not having an official definition, LUV is said to be a pickup truck or SUV with a high specification body and interior.

Manual Stick Shift:

Manual stick shift is just another term to describe a manual transmission in the United States. 50.Microcar

Called “bubble cars” in the past, modern microcars are very small vehicles designed purely for city driving.

MPT – Multi-Plate Transfer:

A multi-plate transfer (or multi-plate clutch) is a set of several hydraulic clutches that are progressively engaged and disengaged to limit slip at the drive wheels.

MPV – Multi-Purpose Vehicle:

The MPV is usually used by families and range in size from compact cars to almost van-like dimensions.

MSR – Motor Slip Regulation:

The MSR (Motor Slip Regulation) is a Fiat safety technology. If the driver changes down abruptly in conditions of poor grip, the MSR system activates, preventing skid caused by locking the drive wheels.

Multi-link independent suspension:

To prevent the wheel from moving in any other direction but a prescribed path, multi-link independent suspension attaches the wheel to five or sometimes even six flexibly mounted links, that can limit the wheel’s kinematic behaviour.

N2O – Nitrous Oxide:

N2O (Nitrous Oxide, sometimes called laughing gas) is a non-flammable gas used as an oxidizer to increase the power output of engines.

OPDS – Occupant Position Detection System:

The Occupant Position Detection System (OPDS) uses sensors to calculate passenger height and position.  


Overdrive is a term which describes a transmission gear that reduces the power output needed to maintain the driving speed, therefore improving fuel economy.

Part-Time Four-Wheel drive:

The part-time four-wheel drive is the most common type of all-wheel drive. It usually operates only in two-wheel drive mode and it can be switched to all-wheel drive whenever the situation requires.

Permanent Four-Wheel drive:

Permanent four-wheel drive systems send power to all four wheels in a continuous manner. T

Power curve (powerband):

The power output of an internal combustion engine forms a curve if charted on a graph since the engine has different outputs at different rpms. This is called the power curve, or powerband.

Power steering:

Power steering was developed in order to reduce the effort needed to steer the vehicle. In other words, the driver can change the vehicle’s direction with the help of an external power source that can assist in this operation.

PTEC – Powertrain Electronic Control:

The Powertrain Electronic Control (PTEC) is the Aston Martin moniker for a system which controls the engine management, fuel injection, ignition and other diagnostics. PTEC technology is capable of transmitting information between different electronic elements in the engine in microseconds.

Push-Button Four-Wheel Drive:

In some modern part-time four-wheel drive systems the “all-wheel drive mode” can be engaged electronically by simply pushing a button on the instrument panel, thus relieving the driver of locking the wheel hubs manually.  

Pushrods (or rods):

Pushrods are found only in OHV (Overhead Valve) engines.


Audi’s trademarked name for their four-wheel drive system. Quattro all-wheel-drive system is a permanent one, without the possibility of switching from four to two-wheel drive.

Rack-and-pinion steering:

It consists of two gears that convert rotational movement into a linear one, therefore turning the wheels into the desired direction.

Ramp Break-over Angle:

It gives a vehicle’s ability to safely pass over a ramp without touching its underside.


This term is used to describe the spring back of suspension from jounce this motion is called “rebound”.

Recovery Strap:

Used mostly in extreme off-roading, the recovery strap uses kinetic energy to help free a mud stuck vehicle by connecting it to other vehicle having traction.

Road sensing suspension:

Road sensing suspensions use various sensors ensures ride smoothness and reduce the effects of disturbances on the surface of the road.

ROCKER ARM – Rocker arm:

The rocker ram is only found in pushrod engines. It is, in essence, a small reciprocating metal arm that pivots to open and close the intake or exhaust valves when the camshaft raises/lowers the pushrod.

RSC – Roll Stability Control:

The Roll Stability Control (RSC) is a safety system by the Ford Motor Company provides directional stability, which in turn helps to avoid a rollover.


The sedan is the most common configuration of a modern automobile.

Semi-elliptic multi-leaf springs:

Usually found on trucks and sport utility vehicles, to form the foundation of the rear suspension.

Sequential turbochargers:

Sequential turbochargers were created from the need to decrease spooling lag. Two or more turbochargers are put to work .


These are automatic front hubs which help in locking, which translates into the ability to “shift-on-the-fly” from two-wheel drive to four-wheel drive mode.


Shocks are used in most suspension systems to compensate for heavy loads and also to restrict and stabilize the rebound and jounce movements providing easy handling.

Skid plate:

The term “skid plate” is referring to a protective plate(s) put under a vehicle to protect certain components that are vulnerable

SLA – Short Long Arm suspension

The Short Long Arm (SLA) is a type of suspension, which uses upper and lower control arms of different lengths in order to control wheel camber changes during jounce and rebound.

SOHC – Single overhead camshaft:

Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC) engines use one camshaft per each cylinder head to operate both the intake and the exhaust valves.

Speed-rated tires:

Speed-rated tires are certified for safe use at higher speeds, after testing by the manufacturer.

SRS – Supplemental Restraint System (airbag):

In order to reduce the driver/passenger impact with hard parts of the interior of a vehicle in the event of a collision, the Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) causes an airbag to instantaneously inflate and supplement the seatbelt.

Station wagon:

The station wagon or estate has a configuration similar in design to a sedan with an extended cargo area.


The strut is a suspension element used in unibody car configurations, that combines the shock absorbers with the ability to support sideways forces.


A subframe is used in order to “keep” the engine and the transmission attached to the body of the car.


The supercharger works same as the turbocharger except it’s not powered by the exhaust gases but by belt or chain-drive from the engine’s crankshaft.


The supermini is a class of automobiles that covers the smallest cars.

Suspension Travel:

The term suspension travel is referring to the amount of vertical movement of a wheel.

SUV – Sports Utility Vehicle:

The Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) is a type of passenger vehicle derived from trucks but nowadays they are made of unibody to reduce the weight and fuel economy.


The sway bar also called an anti-roll bar or a stabilizer bar, it can restrict the body sway of the vehicle during cornering.


The tachometer is essentially a gauge that can display an engine’s revolutions per minute (rpm or revs).

TCS – Traction Control System:

Minimises wheel slippage when turns and at low grip surfaces and even reduces engine power until the grip is restored.

TDI – Turbo Diesel Direct Injection:

TDI is Volkswagen’s AG trademarked moniker for their Turbo Diesel Direct Injection engines.


It  sends alerts during emergency situations like accidents and also senses the type of accident with the help of crash sensors which activate airbags and rollover sensors which check the  seat-belt

Three-valve technology:

Dispensing the exhaust valves in the large engines to reduce heat loss and helping to reach the operating temperature so as to improve engine’s emissions

Tongue Weight:

The tongue weight is the actual force that is pressing down on the front axle of a vehicle and is strictly related to mass distribution between the axles.


Torque (also called couple) is a vector that measures the amount of rotational effort exerted at the crankshaft by an engine.

Torsion Bar:

The torsion bar is a tubular rod or beam that has one end fixed to the chassis or body of the vehicle and the other is twisted by a lever which is connected to the suspension. Mostly seen in trucks and truck-based SUVs.

Towing weight: 

This term describes the maximum weight a vehicle can tow according to imposed standards.

TPM – Tire Pressure Monitoring:

Tire Pressure Monitoring (TPM) with the help of sensors, regularly checks all tires for any changes in pressure and informs the driver via a display on the dashboard or instrument panel.

TPMS – Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems:

A system for tire pressure monitoring detects pressure fluctuations, locates the affected tires and informs the driver with warnings.


The track tells the distance between two wheels on the same axle.

Transfer box:

A transfer gearbox (or transfer case) is a system of gears used to transmit power coming through the transmission to the front and rear driveshafts. Used in four-wheel drive vehicles, transfer boxes usually employ only two gears – low range and high range – which are used mostly in off-road conditions.

Transmission (gearbox):

The transmission (also called gearbox) is a gear-changing assembly which consists of a number of gears and other associated parts and it is used to transfer the power from a vehicle’s engine to one or more driving axles.


Designed to improve the volumetric efficiency of an internal combustion engine, the turbocharger is a forced induction device which can increase an engine’s output.

Two-wheel drive:

Two-wheel drive (or 2WD) is referring to any vehicle in which the drive train is sending power from the engine to a single axle (to only two wheels).

U-JOINT – Universal Joint:

Designed to transmit a rotary motion between an output shaft and an input shaft with a different angle between them, the U-joint (or Universal) is comprised of two rods (or shafts) connected via a pair of hinges.

UCC – Unified Chassis Control:

The Unified Chassis Control (UCC) is a Delphi technology which integrates different safety systems under the same umbrella in order to provide enhanced vehicle control.

Unitized Construction:

A unitized (also called unibody or monocoque) body integrates the chassis and other structural elements into the construction of the vehicle, and does not require a separate frame or chassis to provide rigidity to the body, thus reducing the total weight.


A valve is a device that regulates the flow of gases in and out of the cylinders of an internal combustion engine.

VCU – Viscous Coupling:

Viscous Coupling (VCU) can act either as limited slip differential (LSD) or as a central differential in all-wheel drive vehicles. More or less torque can be transmitted between two axles or two wheels according to the individual speed of the axles (or wheels.)

VDC – Vehicle Dynamic Control:

Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) is Alfa Romeo’s marketing name for the Electronic Stability Programme, and is used to counter understeering and oversteering, thus improving vehicle stability during high-speed turns or on low grip surfaces.

VNT – Variable Nozzle Turbine:

Variable Nozzle Turbines (VNTs) have electrically adjustable guide vanes which can modify the boost pressure according to different engine speeds, thus counteracting the turbo-lag experienced 14. Vortec

Vortec is General Motors’ marketing name for a group of engines which are particularly used in most of their trucks and truck-based SUVs.


VSA – Vehicle Stability Assist:

Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) is Honda’s trademarked name for a version of the Electronic Stability Programme, which can assist vehicles from skidding (understeer and oversteer) and maintain control by individually braking each wheel and even reducing engine power to provide stability.

VSC – Vehicle Skid Control:

Vehicle Skid Control (VSC) is Toyota’s trademarked name for a version of the Electronic Stability Programme.Which purpose is same as VSA.

Weight-to-horsepower ratio:

The weight to power ratio is the result of a vehicle’s weight divided by the power its engine develops, thus enabling a measurement of performance.


Wheelbase is the distance between the front axle and the rear axle of a vehicle. Cars with a longer wheelbase are more stable at high speeds and provide better interior room.


A winch is an externally mounted mechanical device consisting of a cable spooled onto a drum. It is used to pull heavy or bulky objects or to retrieve a vehicle that is stuck in the mud.

Windowbags (window airbags):

Window-bags are designed to protect a vehicle’s occupants in case of an accident. They are called windowbags because in the event of a side collision the occupants’ heads are protected by the slim airbags which surround each lateral window within milliseconds of the crash.

X-Drive all-wheel-drive system:

X-Drive splits the power between the front and rear wheels not depending on the ABS sensors alone, X-Drive is controlled by a central ECU which transformed the system from a reactive to an active one. If just one of the wheels starts slipping the ABS sensors detect it and send data to the ECU which in turn commands the wet multi-plate clutch trough a high speed electric servo-motor which turns an actuator shaped like a disc.


Yaw is the measurement of a vehicle’s rotation around its central axis (its center of gravity.) 

Zero-offset steering:

Minimises torque-steer on front-wheel drive  in cars during acceleration or braking thus improving stability.